The elderly are most often prone to broken bones. THE'osteoporosis is one of the main factors. In the majority of cases, all osteoporosis is fractured. In this article, find out all about this pathology.
What is meant by fracture osteoporosis?
It should be remembered that a osteoporosis is defined by a pathology that affects the bones. It is characterized by their demineralization, the decrease in their density and their deformation. The bones will thus become fragile and be more vulnerable to broken bones. This disease should not be confused withosteopenia and osteoarthritis, which are both inducers to bone fractures.
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THEfracture osteoporosis can affect almost any bone in the body. In particular, in order of frequency, we encounter fractures at the level of: vertebrae, of the femur (especially at the level of the neck), of the bones of the forearm, of the wrist, the bones of the pelvis… It manifests itself in the slightest non-serious traumas such as a fall from its height, shocks…
What are the parameters to assess in the risk of fracture osteoporosis?
Many risk factors are to be considered in thefracture osteoporosis. Among them are the clinical factors such as :
- age (especially over 65);
- menopause ;
- the presence of a personal history of fractures;
- the existence of a family history (first degree relatives) of fragility fractures;
- systemic corticosteroid therapy (for example prednisone), taken long-term (greater than or equal to 3 months) and at a dosage greater than or equal to 7,5 mg per day;
- chronic smoking;
- the underlying diseases (thyroid diseases, hypercorticism, diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.);
- surgical removal of the ovaries (oophorectomy) or prostate (orchiectomy);
- low weight (BMI or body mass index below 19);
- prolonged immobilization...
The realization of a bone densitometry is the best way to detect this pathology. She will measure the bone mineral density (BMD) by the T score and to assess the risk rate of developing a fracture.
If the T-score is normal, the fracture risk is only 8%. On the other hand, if it is between -1 and -2,5, this risk is 48%. The latter is at 45% if the T-score is equal to or less than -2,5.
In addition, the dosage of biological markers of bone remodeling can also help.
- Bone formation markers: bone and osteocalcined alkaline phosphatase.
- Markers of bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptides of collagen type 1 and propeptides of extension of collagen type 1.
Associated with the measurement of bone mineral density, the sensitivity and specificity of fracture risk prediction will be more accurate.
Although these various investigations are of great potential, it is also necessary to seek the fall risk factors such as: neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic pathologies, reduced visual capacity, alcoholism, etc.
What should be done with fracture osteoporosis? ?
For a supported adequate of a fracture osteoporosis, it is essential to eliminate modifiable risk factors. So we could:
- help the patient quit smoking;
- let the patient know that physical exercise is of paramount importance in the management of osteoporosis;
- avoid falls as much as possible (make ophthalmological checks, properly arrange the habitats, do not drink alcohol, be accompanied in the event of debility, etc.).
Simultaneously, it is necessary to carry out the medical treatment osteoporosis as the correction of a possible vitamin D deficiency.
It should be remembered that drug treatments are based on the risk factors in question and the degree of severity of the disease.
If there are signs of fracture, it is necessary to make radiological examinations to view the type, location and number of the fracture line. The treatment will depend on the result. Either he will orthopedicEither surgical, or both at the same time.
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